The Khazar Khaganate

When speaking of Jewish history, the popular consensus is that Jews lived exclusively in diaspora since antiquity, with the Jewish Revolts of the Roman Period being the last period of Jewish political rule, and a short-lived one at that. Though this consensus is reductionist in more ways than one—there were multiple groups in that converted to Judaism in pre-Islamic Arabia, some of which became regional powers on the peninsula, and a few small kingdoms in Ethiopia—the Khazar Khaganate of the Early Middle Ages stands out to me as possibly the most powerful of these forgotten Jewish polities, and as the one I find the most interesting. The Khazars were ethnically Turkic, and most likely origin

In Defense of Machine Politics

In canon of American political history, the urban political machines of the late 19th – early 20th century often rank among as one of the lowest forms of American politics. In popular imagination, the political machine serves as the boogeyman. Images of smoked-filled back rooms in over-industrialized cities invite conspiratorial comparisons to secret cabals and greedy and ambitious politicos. However, such a negative remembrance of the individual particulars of the political machines disregards the disparate positive influences that they had on American politics for much of the 20th century. A defense of the political machines must be couched in the realities of their excess. The machines

The Power of Resistance

Slaves used resistance as a powerful tool to fight against slavery on board of the slave ships used to transport them across the Atlantic Trade. Before becoming cargo on board slave ships, slaves suffered as captives on land at the hands of both Africans and European. Slavery in Africa was not as harsh as slavery on board the slave ship, yet slaves still endured horrific treatment. It was on land that resistance began amongst those being held captive. Equiano, a slave who was brought onto a slave ship at the age of eleven, resisted against African slavery in ways that reflected similar resistance on board of the slave ship. Equiano and his sister, “when offered food…refused to eat” and also

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